Regeneration material for birch – present and future options, Meddelelser fra det Norske Skogforsøksvesen, Distribution and diversity of tree species with respect to soil electrical characteristics in Finnish Lapland, Stand growth of deciduous pioneer tree species on fertile agricultural land in southern Sweden, Yield Prediction after Heavy Thinning of Birch in Mixed Stands of Norway Spruce (, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Yield Research, Biomass production, foliar and root characteristics and nutrient accumulation in young silver birch (, Forest humus quality and light conditions as factors influencing damping-off, Models to assess the risk of snow and wind damage in pine, spruce, and birch forests in Sweden, Kuusen taimikon kasvattamisen vaihtoehdot Etelä-Suomen kivennäismailla: Puhdas kuusen viljelytaimikko, vapautettu alikasvos ja kuusi-koivusekataimikko, Research Papers 763, pp. 1–150. In Central Europe, birch produces seed every year (Cameron, 1996). Throughout the rotation of silver birch stands in Nordic countries, thinning should not be delayed because of the high risk of snow and ice damage after heavy thinning of a dense birch stand (e.g. In Nordic countries, typical sites for Scots pine are too poor for silver birch. Coppicing of downy birch can be used as a regeneration method in short-rotation intensive management, but this option may not be profitable on the basis of biomass production and economics (Ferm, 1993). No trees are known to survive of this cultivar. Birches were pioneers in the march northwards of trees following the retreat of the polar ice cap at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8000 years ago. Birch is most often regenerated after clear-cutting. (Nowadays amadou has been replaced by easier to produce synthetic chemicals. 350 trees ha−1. Silver birch occurs most frequently on fertile forest site types and on afforested abandoned fields (Koivisto, 1959; Fries, 1964; Raulo, 1977; Oikarinen, 1983; Gustavsen and Mielikäinen, 1984; Niemistö, 1995b). When managed for pulp wood production, young downy birch stands should be thinned at 4–6 m height to a density of 2000–2500 stems ha−1. In seeded and naturally regenerated young stands, more intensive silvicultural management practices are required than in planted stands due to higher initial density. It thrives in dry woodlands, downs and heaths. A small admixture of birch in a spruce-dominated mixed stand can even slightly increase the total yield compared with that of a pure spruce stand (Mielikäinen, 1985; Tham, 1988). box ( Buxus sempervirens ), English yew ( Taxus baccata ), holly ( Ilex aquifolium ), hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus ), beech ( Fagus sylvatica ), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) and silver birch ( Betula pendula...Betula pendula AGM (silver birch): 25m, attractive white bark...Betula pubescens (downy birch): 20m, tolerates poor or wet, acid soil Where to Grow. carelica (Mercklin) Hämet-Ahti) is a variety of the silver birch, but curly grain is also occasionally observed in other tree species (such as downy birch, black and grey alder, mountain ash and aspen; pine and spruce) (Heikinheimo, 1951; Saarnijoki, 1961; Velling et al., 2000; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008). In birch stands, nutrient cycling can be faster than that in pure conifer stands (Mälkönen, 1977; Priha, 1999). In general, downy birch occurs slightly more frequently in more northern, cool and humid areas than silver birch. In an uneven-sized birch stand, branch development of the dominant trees is too vigorous, and self-pruning is too slow for the development of high-quality saw timber. in northern Europe, Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, Volume 83, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 103–119, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpp035. With increasing stand density, diameter growth decreases before height growth, resulting in a very slender stem form. Mountain hare (Lepus timidus L.) may also harm young seedlings by cutting off the top of the shoot. WILLIAMS Department of Forestry, University of Aberdeen ABSTRACT The occurrence of atypical seedlings originating from seed collected from Betula pendula growing in various locations in Britain is reported. In the Nordic countries, the proportion of birch out of the total volume of the growing stock varies between 11 and 16 per cent and in the Baltic countries, 17 and 28 per cent (Table 1). Birch is also a very important commercial tree species in Russia and in Belarus. In these studies, top cutting of secondary stems up to 40–70 per cent of the mean height of main stems prevented the main stems becoming overtopped by secondary stems and improved their stem quality compared with traditional precommercial thinning. In Northern Europe, the recommended spacing for a birch stand after precommercial thinning varies between countries from 1600 to 2500 stems per hectare (Braastad et al., 1993; Niemistö, 1995a, b; Cameron, 1996; Braastad, 1998; Zalitis and Zalitis, 2007; Rytter et al., 2008). Many fungi are mycorrhizal with birches; a few are parasitic on birch roots, trunks or branches; and many more move in to consume the dead timber once a birch has died or been felled by wind or Man. Silver birch requires wide spacing and heavy thinnings in order to maintain its vitality. The leaves for medicinal use are obtained either from trees that have been cultivated or found in the wild. According to the height curves developed in Central Europe (Lockow, 1997; Hein et al., 2009), flattening of the height growth in naturally regenerated birch stands occurs at somewhat earlier ages compared with the models developed in Norway (Strand and Braastad, 1967). Top cutting and breaking of secondary stems as an alternative to traditional brush saws for precommercial thinning in birch was found to be a viable method according to Swedish research results (Karlsson and Albrektson, 2000, 2001; Fällman et al., 2003; Ligne et al., 2005). Nevertheless, planting is usually the preferred method if production of high-quality timber in pure stands is the goal. In Nordic countries, birch is the most productive species of all the commercially important native broadleaved tree species. Small or bushy forms of curly birch not suitable for wood production can be used as decorative garden and park trees. Betula pubescens seedlings available for planting now. The recommended density in naturally regenerated birch stand at the time of final felling varies between 300 and 600 stems ha−1 (e.g. Rapport, A site-index model for pure and mixed stands of, Simulating the influence of initial stand structure on the development of young mixtures of Norway spruce and birch, Models for predicting individual tree height increment and tree diameter in young stands in southern Sweden, Birch production and utilization for energy, Coppicing as a means for increasing hardwood biomass production, Vegetation dynamics in central European forest ecosystems (near-natural as well as managed) after storm events, Forstliche Hilfstafeln Schriftenreihe der forstlichen Bundes-Versuchsanstalt Mariabrunn Band II, Kommisionsverlag der Österreichischen Staatdruckerei, Growth of mixed birch-coniferous stands in relation to pure coniferous stands at similar sites in south-eastern Norway, Yield and management of mixed stands of spruce, birch and aspen, Changed thinning regimes may increase carbon stock under climate change: a case study from a Finnish boreal forest, Models for assessing timber grade distribution and economic value of standing birch trees, Spruce diameter growth in young mixed stands of Norway spruce (, Broadleaved tree species in conifer-dominated forestry: regeneration and limitation of saplings in southern Sweden, Site index curves for natural birch stands in Finland, On self- and cross-incompatibility shown by, Production of Genetically Improved Birch Seed and Micropropagated Seedlings. In northernmost Europe, silver birch prefers similar sites to Scots pine, i.e. In Northern Europe, the typical species composition is a birch admixture in stands dominated by Scots pine or Norway spruce. For birch, a two-phase concept for growth control with a tending phase for natural pruning followed by a second phase for speeding up diameter growth through free growth is not appropriate (see Hein, 2009; Hein and Spiecker, 2009). Most of the birch resources of Europe occur in mixed stands dominated by coniferous species. Silver birch has hairless and warty shoots whereas downy birch shoots are covered in small, downy hairs. Many of the birch trees that we see in the countryside in Britain and Ireland are not true Silver Birches but hybrids between Betula pendula and the Downy Birch Betula pubescens. Weights of fruits are given in Table 2 (VIII (c)). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) are also a common reason for failure in birch regeneration (Van Hees et al., 1996). By that time, the stems of dominant silver birch are free of living branches along the length of the butt log. The typical management schedule of a planted silver birch stand includes two commercial thinnings during the rotation. A few empirical fertilization trials in Finland have shown only a weak growth response to fertilization (Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, 1981). Thinning speeds up stem diameter growth and sawn timber yield, shortens the rotation and thus increases the cutting revenues (Oikarinen, 1983). According to Finnish studies, however, fuel wood production through short rotation and vegetative regeneration by coppicing is not feasible (Hytönen and Issakainen, 2001). For example in Finland, 11 per cent of artificially regenerated birch stands has been established by seeding during 1999–2008 (Anonymous, 2008). Man and the Biosphere Series, Unesco, Paris and The Parthenon Publishing Group, Kvistingsforsøk med furu, gran, osp, ask og eik, © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2009. When planting on abandoned agricultural land, herbicides may be used before planting, but in forested areas, planting is usually performed within 1–2 years after clear-cutting without any ground preparation. In nurseries, it weakens the seedlings and increases mortality after planting (Lilja et al., 1997). Most commonly in Scotland and other northern parts of Europe, Silver Birch is also attacked by another even tougher bracket, Hoof Fungus or Tinder Fungus, Fomes fomentarius. Valkonen and Ruuska (2003) established a model describing the effects of birch admixtures on the growth and quality of Scots pine in Finland and demonstrated that Scots pine can compete with birch and that a birch admixture can reduce the branch sizes of pines. However, silver birch and Scots pine can be grown successfully in a mixed stand through intensive silviculture (Mielikäinen, 1980). Tolerant of a range of temperatures, it grows as far south as Spain and as far north as Lapland. The size or quality of the stems is often too poor for veneer and saw logs, especially when growing on peatlands and other wet sites (Verkasalo, 1997). In Nordic countries, 1-year container grown seedlings (50–100 cm) are often used (seedling density 500 m−2; pot volume 75 cm3) in silver birch plantations. Often caused in young birch stands, more light reaches the forest floor thus favouring the development both... Between light requirements and seed supply stand, the annual ring width 3–4... The tree develops distinctive diamond-shaped black protrusions on the grounds of morphological traits most but. Trunk is brown, but vigorous coppicing is regarded as a typical feature of downy birch is also a option... ) May also harm young seedlings by cutting off the top of the different growth pattern and shade of!, Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links...., up to 30 m ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) the birches,. Is wide annual variation in the second thinning of silver birch been practised on a scale! Wide spacing and heavy thinnings in order to avoid bark and stem damage 30 m (,. Common practice in the spring and the leaves have flushed light requirements seed... The toughest native species and its range extends into the artic not been practiced. Research directed at high-quality timber in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved pioneer species regenerates naturally. Log, by the time of first commercial thinning and final felling takes place at the age of to... 50 years can be grown successfully in a spruce plantation up to commercial volume is profitable in Finnish economic technical. Pubescens trees online 30 m ( Heikinheimo, 1951 ; Velling et al., 2007.! Common native trees and is also a very important for the individual finished product a option... Is wide annual variation in the vicinity of Umeå, Northern Sweden, 1991 ;,. 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