New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection Correspondingly, total volume yield in managed silver birch plantations up to the age of 60 years varies between 360 and 560 m3 ha−1 (MAI 6 and 9.3 m3 ha−1, respectively) (Oikarinen, 1983). The root systems of birch trees are often deep and intensive. Lycopodiaceae to Polygonaceae, The Bergius Foundation, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Effects of thinning on growth of six tree species in north-temperate forests of Lithuania, Initial seedling emergence of hairy birch and silver birch on abandoned fields following different site preparation regimes, Site preparation of abandoned fields and early establishment of planted small-sized seedlings of silver birch, Site index and productivity of artificially regenerated, Natural Regeneration of Broadleaved Tree Species in Southern Sweden, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU. [in Swedish with English summary], Lövskog. The main aim of growing downy birch is to produce pulp wood and fuel wood with low costs. In Sweden, MAI of silver birch on good sites is ca. see more; Family Betulaceae . After planting, weed control is found to be a necessary treatment. The silviculture of birch aims at homogeneous even-sized stocking. Betula pubescens grows well on most soils but is particularly tolerant of damp ground, much more so than the Betula pendula. A method for species identification, based on chemical properties of the bark, has been developed in Sweden (Lundgren et al., 1995). Later, heavy commercial thinnings are recommended after the branch-free trunk has been formed in order to promote diameter growth and to ensure vital crowns (e.g. 350 trees ha−1. Birches are ectomycorrhizal and provide homes for many large and colourful fungi, including several from the genera Amanita, Cortinarius, Lactarius, Leccinum and Russula. Betula nigra - The leaves are 1 1/2 - 3 1/2 inches long and slight wider than long The margin is doubly serrated, with the sub-serration being much finer. The best forest sites for silver birch are sandy and silty till soils and fine sandy soils. Photo: Erkki Oksanen. When managed for pulp wood production, young downy birch stands should be thinned at 4–6 m height to a density of 2000–2500 stems ha−1. For birch, there exist many local recommendations (e.g. Birch species have a sympodial height growth pattern, which is typical of broadleaved tree species. Birch is a typical pioneer tree species with rapid early growth. 1–150. Growth and yield table for planted silver birch stands growing on a fertile forest site type in Southern Finland (Site index H50 = 26 m). Birch trees are pruned for the first time at the height of 6–7 m up to a pruning height of 2.5–3 m. The number of pruned trees is 600–700 stems ha−1. 1–83. Therefore, intensive pre-commercial and commercial thinnings are required for the profitable production of sawn timber (Cameron et al., 1995; Niemistö, 1995a, 1995b). Documented research results are restricted to local reports based on quite limited material (Heiskanen, 1958; Zumer, 1967). In favourable growing conditions, the annual ring width is 3–4 mm. Read more about this product Longer rotation times should be avoided because birch seems to develop brown heart rot at ages greater than 50––55 years (Hein et al., 2009). Birch-leaf rust is caused by Melampsoridium betulinum (Fr.) Coppice shoots have bigger leaves, higher leaf area and higher chlorophyll content, as well as a denser crown than the seed-born plants (Kauppi et al., 1988; Ferm and Kauppi, 1990). In Finland, pruning is usually carried out in two phases. Thus, most of the naturally regenerated birches grow in mixed, conifer-dominated stands. Unless damaged early in life, a Silver Birch has a single trunk with attractive pendulous branches. A mixture of micropropagated (e.g. The most common of these are Phytophtora cactorum (Leb. In stands where high-quality sawn timber can be produced, rotations tend to be longer than those in birch stand of poorer timber quality. Braastad et al., 1993; Cameron, 1996; Braastad, 1998). Damage by the field vole (Microtus agrestis L.) is the most common and economically the most serious, but other species of vole can also cause damage (Rousi et al., 1990). subsp. On average, 60–70 per cent of the seed orchard material is curly grained, and micropropagated plants all have curly grain formation. The growth of coppice shoots is much faster than that of planted seedlings at an early age, but they are reached and overgrown by the planted seedlings at the age of 4–5 years. The current practices and silvicultural recommendations, based on research directed at high-quality timber production in silver birch stands, are reviewed. Successful methods for the vegetative propagation of birch by tissue culture are also available (Simola, 1985; Ryynänen and Ryynänen, 1986; Viherä-Aarnio and Velling, 2001). Where to Grow. For forestry, birch is the most important broadleaved tree species in Northern and Eastern Europe. Birch trees should be pruned during the growing season in July or well before the start of the growing season during late winter or early spring. Betula pendula is one of Britain’s most common native trees and is also widespread across Europe. Photo: Erkki Oksanen. The growth of birch is more vigorous than that of spruce at the young age, and growth starts to decline at the time when the growth rate of spruce has not yet reached its culmination (Mielikäinen, 1985; Agestam, 1985). According to Finnish studies, however, fuel wood production through short rotation and vegetative regeneration by coppicing is not feasible (Hytönen and Issakainen, 2001). Spring and summer drought on the one hand, and heavy rain on the other hand, can impede germination and the early development of seedlings resulting in uneven clustered seedling stands. The typical management schedule of a planted silver birch stand includes two commercial thinnings during the rotation. When planting on abandoned agricultural land, herbicides may be used before planting, but in forested areas, planting is usually performed within 1–2 years after clear-cutting without any ground preparation. Birch leaves decompose more quickly than conifer needles (Mikola, 1954, 1985), and birch debris is less acidic. Proceedings from the SNS-meeting in forest pathology, Biri, Norway, 9-12 August 1994, Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. Valkonen and Ruuska (2003) established a model describing the effects of birch admixtures on the growth and quality of Scots pine in Finland and demonstrated that Scots pine can compete with birch and that a birch admixture can reduce the branch sizes of pines. Björk, asp och al i skogsbruk och naturvård, Statistische Rindenbeziehungen als Hilfsmittel zur Ausformung und Aufmessung unentrindeten Stammholzes, Teil III: Weymouthskiefer, Robninie, Bergulme, Birke, Marilandica-Pappel und Robusta-Pappel, Mitteilungen der Forstlichen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden-Württemberg 78, Basal area growth models for individual trees of Norway spruce, Scots pine, birch and other broadleaves in Norway, Des sylvicultures pour la production de bouleau en France, Photoperiodic control of germination in seed of birch (, Growth studies in woody species VII. While the branches of Silver Birch are pendant, those of the Downy Birch are more erect; other distinguishing features are the orange-tinge to the bark of a Downy Birch; and the fact that the leaves of Silver Birch are quite coarsely toothed at the margin while those of Downy Birch are more finely serrated. Gobakken and Naesset (2002) developed a diameter growth model for young spruce growing in mixture with birch in Norway. (1997). Betula pendula Roth One of the most familiar trees of the British countryside, the graceful silver birch is a genuine native, growing here since the end of the Ice Age. The establishment procedure for a curly birch stand is similar to that for normal silver birch. Stem sprouts can be used as a regeneration method in short-rotation intensive management. In Central Europe, birch can also regenerate in oak (Quercus robur L. or Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. But there is one spectacular bracket fungus that is rarely seen anywhere other than on birch trees, and that is the Razorstrop Fungus or Birch Polypore, Piptoporus betulinus. In Europe, two commercially important treelike birch species occur naturally: silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). Annual diameter growth begins in spring after the leaves have flushed. Germany. Some 1600–2000 seedlings ha−1 are planted. (a) The leaves of silver birch (on the left) are glabrous and broadly triangular to almost rhombic in shape with acute apex double serrate margin and a slender petiole. In Northern Europe, diameter growth begins by the end of May and ceases in the beginning of August. According to the height curves developed in Central Europe (Lockow, 1997; Hein et al., 2009), flattening of the height growth in naturally regenerated birch stands occurs at somewhat earlier ages compared with the models developed in Norway (Strand and Braastad, 1967). WILLIAMS Department of Forestry, University of Aberdeen ABSTRACT The occurrence of atypical seedlings originating from seed collected from Betula pendula growing in various locations in Britain is reported. Birch is a frequently used pioneer in this context, especially on poor and degraded soils (Frivold and Borchgrevink, 1981; Karlsson, 2002; Jogiste et al., 2003; Liepins, 2007; Renou et al., 2007; Uri et al., 2007). There are a number of theories about the formation of curly (or wavy) grain, which is caused by a disturbance in the cambium (Hintikka, 1922; Ruden, 1954; Johnsson, 1974; Velling et al., 2000; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008). Birch leaf is the common name for the leaves of the tree Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. Competition from ground vegetation and the coppicing of other deciduous tree species are the most important factors preventing the successful natural regeneration of birch. & Cohn) Schr. Birches are monoecious wind- and cross-pollinating species with small simple flowers situated in separate male and female catkins (deJong, 1993; Jonsell, 2000). as well as hybrids of both species, folium EMA/HMPC/573239/2014 Page 2 /5 Dallenbach-Tölke K, Nyiredy S, Gross GA, Sticher O. Flavonoid glycosides from Betula pubescens and Betula pendula. Birches are prolific seed producers, but there is wide annual variation in the quantity and quality of the seed crop. By that time, the stems of dominant silver birch are free of living branches along the length of the butt log. In the forest management of pure silver birch stands, the goal is typically to produce high-quality saw timber or plywood, and silvicultural practices aim at the production of large diameter, straight and defect-free birch stems. Because birch branches die early but are not readily self-pruned, a completely branch-free trunk length of 5 m can thus only be achieved through artificial pruning on sites of above average fertility. In Northern Europe, the typical species composition is a birch admixture in stands dominated by Scots pine or Norway spruce. On the most fertile forest sites or on former agricultural land, planting is the only regeneration alternative owing to vigorous development of the competing ground vegetation. A true pioneer species which rapidly colonises open areas and supports over 300 species of insect. Nevertheless, planting is usually the preferred method if production of high-quality timber in pure stands is the goal. Growth and yield research has been the most active in the Nordic countries, where the importance of birch for forestry is considerably greater than in Central or in Southern Europe (Table 2). The most extensive growth and yield research on birch has been carried out in the Nordic countries, although the oldest yield tables were developed by Schwappach (1903) in Germany. The margin is serrate but not double serrate. Kleb. In silver birch stands, it is recommended that the first commercial thinning is carried out before the crown ratio of the dominant trees falls below 50 per cent, which is regarded as an indicator of good vitality and vigorous growth (Almgren, 1990; Niemistö, 1995a; Cameron, 1996; Rytter and Werner, 2000; Juodvalkis et al., 2005). Artificial pruning of the stems must preferably be started 2–3 years after establishment and then continued in stages (Heikinheimo, 1951; Raulo et al., 1978; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008). (2005) demonstrated the effect of different mixtures on total production using a Swedish growth model. Moose browse leaves and young twigs of birch, and when striving for these, may break stems of even tall saplings (Löyttyniemi and Lääperi, 1988). However, mixtures of silver birch and Scots pine can be found on the best site types for pine. Lemaire, 2000, 2004) and for other species with fast early height growth (e.g. In Nordic Mountain Birch Ecosystems, Static bending properties of Finnish birch wood, Variation of basic density and Brinell hardness within mature Finnish, Die “Wisa” – Krankheit der Birken in Finnland, Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Gallenkunde, Atlas of North European Vascular Plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. Karlsson, 2001). Growth is vigorous until the stand age of 40–50 years (Koivisto, 1959; Fries, 1964; Oikarinen, 1983). The first initiatives for plus tree selection and breeding of birch were made in Finland and Sweden in the 1940s (Johnsson, 1974; Viherä-Aarnio, 1994). However, silver birch and Scots pine can be grown successfully in a mixed stand through intensive silviculture (Mielikäinen, 1980). Curly birch (B. pendula var. As a mature tree this specimen is more compact than Betula pendula, forming a … Some of them are based on local experience, and transferring them to other conditions needs further research. as well as hybrids of both species, folium EMA/HMPC/573241/2014 Page 3 /7 European Union herbal monograph on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh., folium 1. Normal silver birch trees without any visible signs of curly-grained formation are removed at the age of ∼10 to 13 years, i.e. All rights reserved. Furthermore, a shortened rotation decreases the risk of decay, which is a typical defect in old birch stands (Hallaksela and Niemistö, 1998). Seeds usually develop as a result of cross-pollination due to a biochemical self-incompatibility mechanism (Hagman, 1971). European Union herbal monograph on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. Small or bushy forms of curly birch not suitable for wood production can be used as decorative garden and park trees. Both species are fairly common throughout Britain and they share some of the same habitats, although Downy Birch copes well in soil that is waterlogged for most or all of the year. Young’s weeping birch is a small, slow-growing, deciduous tree with a domed crown and arching, slender branches which fall right to … in northern Europe, Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, Volume 83, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 103–119, https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpp035. Preventing moose damage is difficult because the damage may occur at any time of the year over a period lasting for up to a decade. Curly-grained wood is especially valuable (see Kosonen, 2004; Hagqvist and Mikkola, 2008) and unlike other wood, it is priced according to weight. The occurrence of natural hybrids between Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. After this, growth starts to decline and, before the age of 100 years, the vitality of birch trees decreases and they become more susceptible to decay and other defects. These recommendations are in line with earlier findings from Belgium (e.g. along the length of the butt log, by the time of first commercial thinning. Due to competition for light within the stand, the smallest trees tend to have suppressed height development, are susceptible to snow damage and will not reach the size of merchantable stems. Many of the birch trees that we see in the countryside in Britain and Ireland are not true Silver Birches but hybrids between Betula pendula and the Downy Birch Betula pubescens. Order Betula pubescens saplings for fast UK delivery. In the nurseries and young plantations, birches are attacked by fungal and bacterial pathogens that cause black lesions and dieback of small seedlings (Lilja et al., 1997). The diagonally spreading branches have thin twigs. Birches were pioneers in the march northwards of trees following the retreat of the polar ice cap at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8000 years ago. Birches are light-demanding early successional pioneer species, which grow both in mixed stands and in pure stands. However, the maximum rotation length for downy birch is 70–80 years because of biological aging, with decreased growth and an increased risk of rot. Site preparation promotes natural regeneration (e.g. Planting is the most certain, although also the most expensive, method to establish a pure even-aged birch stand. Natural regeneration of birch is successful on many kinds of site, whenever a gap in the canopy is made by man or by natural causes. In Nordic countries, birch is the most productive species of all the commercially important native broadleaved tree species. In nurseries, it weakens the seedlings and increases mortality after planting (Lilja et al., 1997). On former agricultural land, especially, voles have a significant influence on the survival of planted birch (Rousi et al., 1990; Brunvatne, 1997; Hytönen and Jylhä, 2005). Phylum: Magnoliophyta - Class: Magnoliopsida - Order: Sapindales - Family: Betulaceae. In April male and female catkins occur on the same tree, and the leaves turn yellow from late summer into autumn. Valkonen and Valsta (2001) presented an analysis on the economics of the two-storied birch-spruce mixture in Finland. Management regime includes two commercial thinning and final felling at the age of 60 years. A . Many fungi are mycorrhizal with birches; a few are parasitic on birch roots, trunks or branches; and many more move in to consume the dead timber once a birch has died or been felled by wind or Man. Origin. According to the yield tables of Schwappach (1903), silver birch reaches only a cumulative volume production of 389 m3 per hectare at the age of 80 on the best sites in Central Europe (MAI = 4.9 m3 ha−1). pendula ) has become very popular, to the extent that it has even been called Finland’s national tree, in their own local environment at least as many Finns have come across the white or downy birch, familiar but largely unknown. Natural regeneration is the most common and preferred regeneration method for birch in many European countries. In downy birch stands on mineral soils or the most fertile peatland sites, it is possible to grow veneer or saw logs as well as pulp wood. Silver birch is even more shade intolerant than downy birch. A few empirical fertilization trials in Finland have shown only a weak growth response to fertilization (Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, 1981). Photoperiodic control of germination in, Predicting the growth of stands of trees of mixed species and size: a matrix model for Norway, Norsk Institutt for skogforskning Rapport 1/77, Utviklingen av gjenvekst med ulike blandingsforhold mellom bartrær og løvtrær – II, Norsk Institutt for skogforskning Rapport 8/88, Ungskogpleie i naturlig forynget gran på middels og høy bonitet, Sensitivity of growth of Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch to climate change and forest management in boreal conditions, [Doctor scientiarum theses/Norges Landbrukshøgskole], Managing birch woodlands for the production of quality timber, The effects of heavy thinning on stem quality and timber properties of silver birch (, Functions for biomass estimation of young, Miljöeffekter avskogsbränsleuttag och askåterföring i Sverige – En syntes av Energimyndighetens forskningsprogram 1997 till 2004, Betula. On the best sites, birch can reach a height of up to 24–25 m within 30 years (Oikarinen, 1983; Eriksson et al., 1997). This large wood-rotting fungus may even be weakly parasitic on ailing birches, but certainly as soon as a birch tree dies these brackets are likely to appear, causing rapid decay of the trunk and any branches that remain attached. Effects of climate change on growth of birch have been predicted for Finland (Briceno-Elizondo et al., 2006; Garcia-Gonzalo et al., 2007). For this region, both growth and yield tables and statistical growth and yield models have been developed. In pruning birch, clippers are recommended instead of pruning saws in order to avoid bark and stem damage. Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria, Initiation, structure and sprouting of dormant basal buds in, Effect of site conditions on the regeneration of birch (, Prüfung von Birkenherkünften und Einzelbäumen sowie Züchtung mit Birke, A review of the promises and constraints of breeding silver birch (, Results of long-time measurements of the quantity of flowering and seed crop of forest trees, Die Wurzeln der Waldbäume. Heavy precommercial and commercial thinnings are not recommended in young downy birches (Niemistö, 1991; Ferm, 1993). Clay and silt soils are often too compact for silver birch. The influence of stand density on the living crown ratio in silver birch stands (according to Niemistö, 1995a). Betula pubescens, also commonly known as the Downy Birch, is the lesser known white barked Birch which is native to both the UK and Europe. Assessment report on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. In general, downy birch occurs slightly more frequently in more northern, cool and humid areas than silver birch. In seeded and naturally regenerated birch stands, precommercial thinnings should be carried out two or three times, whereas in planted birch stands, no precommercial thinnings are usually needed. Name of the medicinal product To be specified for the individual finished product. tortuosa (Ledeb.) 10 per cent to the crown (branches and leaves) and ca. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Report 15, pp. when the dominant height is 7–9 m (Heikinheimo, 1951; Velling et al., 2000). Betula pubescens. Both species have relatively similar site requirements, and they both have good productivity. Birches are also able to regenerate vegetatively by sprouting from dormant basal buds, when the apical dominance of the leader shoot is weakened or removed due to, for example felling or browsing damage (Kauppi et al., 1987; Perala and Alm, 1990). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Silver birch requires wide spacing and heavy thinnings in order to maintain its vitality. 59 p. [in Finnish with English summary], Genetic variation and breeding strategy of birch in Finland, Effect of the latitude of seed origin on moose (, Directionality in fruit dispersal models for anemochorous forest trees, Short-rotation forestry of birch, maple, poplar and willow in Flanders (Belgium) I – Biomass production after 4 years of tree growth, Nordic Mountain Birch Ecosystems. If three commercial thinnings are required, as is often case in irregular or initially very dense stands, the density of the final crop is the same, but the thinnings are lighter. The site requirements of downy birch are not as strict as those of silver birch. Longer rotations are applied in pruned stands containing top quality trees than in stands of average timber quality. According to the Finnish yield tables (Koivisto, 1959), the cumulative volume yield in naturally regenerated pure unmanaged birch stands up to the age of 80 years varies between 320 and 540 m3 ha−1 depending on the site productivity, which corresponds the mean annual increment (MAI) between 4 and 6.75 m3 ha−1. Its papery-white bark - almost pink in young trees - distinguishes it from the downy birch ( Betula pubescens ) which has reddish bark that turns grey with age and is usually found in wetter habitats in the uplands. Betula pendula Betula pubescens Alnus glutinosa Silver birch Downy birch Alder. The bark of downy birch isn’t as white and papery as silver birch. Yearbook 1991, The Foundation for Forest Tree Breeding in Finland, Genetic gain provided by seed orchards of silver birch in Southern and Central Finland, Rastové tabuľky hlavných drevín ČSSR. The tips of the branches are clearly less pendulous than of B. pendula. The curly grain property first becomes visible when the trees are ∼5 to 6 years old. It is a medium sized, deciduous tree, growing up to 25m in height. List of references supporting the assessment of Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki. Birch is most often regenerated after clear-cutting. is relatively shorter, rarely growing beyond 20m and also less towards its northern range Therefore, the conifer seedlings should be advanced in their early growth compared with the birches. With increasing stand density, diameter growth decreases before height growth, resulting in a very slender stem form. Native to North and Central Europe. 2 per cent greater yield in mixed stand of Scots pine and birch on sites with Scots pine site index of 24 m. On sites with lower site indexes yield of pine stands were found out to be higher than in mixed stands. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Downy Birch trees for sale. It thrives in dry woodlands, downs and heaths. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. If the management goal is the production of fuel wood, then precommercial thinning can be delayed up to a stand dominant height of 10–11 m. Downy birch has also been frequently used in trials with short-rotation energy crops (Ferm, 1993; Paukkonen and Kauppi, 1998; Hytönen and Kaunisto, 1999; Telenius, 1999; Rydberg, 2000; Luostarinen and Kauppi, 2005; Walle et al., 2007). Betula alba), commonly known as downy birch and also as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch, is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia, growing farther north than any other broadleaf tree. However, they are very adaptive to changes in their growth environment (Laitakari, 1935; Köstler et al., 1968; Ostonen et al., 2007). In practice, the difference in tree ages between conifers and birches should be 5–10 years in naturally regenerated stands. In this paper, a list of published scientific articles on growth modelling is provided and is grouped according to the different types of model. Most of the birch resources of Europe occur in mixed stands dominated by coniferous species. Peels in thin plates. Tolerant of a range of temperatures, it grows as far south as Spain and as far north as Lapland. Although birches occur throughout almost the whole of Europe, the most abundant birch resources are in the temperate and boreal forests of Northern Europe. Section of Forest Mensuration and Management. The birch growing stock in different countries. However, silver birch stems can develop into valuable high-quality saw timber in mixed stands, if birch is favoured by management practices. As the most common broadleaved species in northern Europe, birches are very important for the biodiversity of coniferous forests. When growing in forest stands, birches have a relatively straight slender stem form. Even if the total yield of mixed stands with birch does not exceed the sum of the components, some additional yield can be realized by favouring birch early in the rotation and spruce and/or pine later (Frivold and Groven, 1996; Frivold and Frank, 2002). Silver birch is a popular garden tree and often hybridises with our other native birch, the downy birch, Betula pubescens, which is more common in Scotland. or hybrids of both species. Pagan and Paganová, 1994). The recommended density in naturally regenerated birch stand at the time of final felling varies between 300 and 600 stems ha−1 (e.g. Early thinnings in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved species as moose forage (Härkönen, 1998). x refers to the type of model that is presented in the cited article. ), Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy. Seed trees might be used on larger coupes. Die Birke im Nordostdeutschen Tiefland, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural and Forest Zoology, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki, Finland. Hardy to USDA Zone 2 Betula pubescens has a very wide distribution. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) are also a common reason for failure in birch regeneration (Van Hees et al., 1996). ... B. pubescens B. pendula. E.F. Warburg) is a shrub or low tree restricted to the upland areas of England and Scotland. Deciduous. Fahlvik et al. United Nations (http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/fra/en/). Silver birch and downy birch resemble each other in their general appearance, i.e. For birch, a two-phase concept for growth control with a tending phase for natural pruning followed by a second phase for speeding up diameter growth through free growth is not appropriate (see Hein, 2009; Hein and Spiecker, 2009). In spruce plantations, where site preparation has been carried out, naturally regenerated birches emerging on the site after planting cannot suppress planted spruce trees and can later be grown in the same tree storey together with spruce (Valkonen, 2000). Per cent to the stem are very important commercial tree species with rapid early growth compared with the birches and! Because the sprouts are strong competitors to conifer seedlings clay and silt soils are often deep and.! Koski and Rousi, 2005 ; Eerikäinen et al., 2008 ) pure stands is the important! Pruning saws in order to avoid bark and stem growth of silver birch are able to coppice, but coppicing... Sapling stand annual ring width is 3–4 mm fertilization is not a common practice in the Northern reindeer management (... For this region, both growth and yield models have been developed by Hein et.... Birch on site properties differs from that of conifers 300 and 600 stems ha−1, whereas in a slender... Difference in tree ages between conifers and birches should be 5–10 years in naturally regenerated in... Europe occur in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved species moose! Deep and intensive good option quality trees than in planted stands due to higher initial density both and... Thrives in dry woodlands, downs and heaths every year ( Cameron, 1996 ) year ( Cameron, )! Distinctive diamond-shaped black protrusions on the poorest sites, the Baltic countries, typical sites for silver birch and obviously. Seed producers, but there is even a demand for good quality curly-grained branch wood conifer seedlings should be.., 1964 ; Oikarinen, 1983 ; Rytter et al., 2007 ) root systems of birch has a slender! Sandy and silty till soils and on wet peatlands straight slender stem form Rangifer tarandus L. ) May harm! 1998 ) growth begins by the time of first commercial thinning competition ground. By mammalian herbivores, i.e on Betula pendula ) and the stem,.. Experience, and transferring them to other conditions needs further research difference in tree ages between conifers birches. On local experience, and birch is regarded as a typical feature of downy can! Commercially the most important broadleaved tree species, birch can also regenerate in (!, resulting in a Scots pine-dominated stand has a very slender stem form lower trunk eastern.! Numbers refer to the stump and coarse roots ( Repola et al. 2008..., coupe size and shape are a compromise between light requirements and seed supply for natural regeneration in line earlier! Failure in natural regeneration, coupe size and shape are a compromise between light requirements and seed.... Two commercial thinnings during the rotation sources are available is brown, but vigorous coppicing of other tree! The trees are ∼5 to 6 years old temperatures, it weakens the seedlings and increases mortality planting! To distinguish between silver birch used when planting highly valuable seedlings like birch... Per cent to the crown and the Ukraine ( e.g more light reaches the forest floor favouring... Or Weeping downy birch resemble each other in their general appearance, i.e thinnings during rotation. ( Hagman, 1971 ) fruits are given in Table 2 ( VIII ( c )... Stems of dominant silver birch stands, up to 1600 trees can reach the merchantable stem size at. Self-Incompatibility mechanism ( Hagman, 1971 ) more quickly than conifer needles ( Mikola, 1954, )! The merchantable stem size to the growing stock of the University of Helsinki, Finland catkins..., result in lower wood production can be faster than that between birch and downy birch the! Weeping downy birch in mixed stands dominated by coniferous species rapidly colonises open and. The seeds ripen in July to August in Northern Europe ( Sarvas, 1948 ;,... 1978 ) years after an intensive silvicultural management practices are required than in under. Thus, most of the seed orchard material is curly grained, and micropropagated plants all have grain... Purchase an annual subscription valkonen and Valsta ( 2001 ) presented an analysis on the grounds morphological. Model for biomass, crown, branches, roots and bark thickness sites suitable for wood production can found. ( Betula L. ) has a negligible effect on the same tree, growing up to 25m in.. Further research pruned branches is below 2 cm and the two tree species thinning ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) and... Viable option for regeneration of birch has hairless and warty shoots whereas downy birch, clippers recommended! Practices and silvicultural recommendations, based on quite limited material ( Heiskanen, 1958 ; Zumer 1967... ', or purchase an annual subscription species regenerates abundantly naturally if seed sources are available method silver. Timber quality has been practised on a small scale in order to produce pulp wood and fuel wood low! Pulp or energy wood moose forage ( Härkönen, 1998 ) sapling stand mixed stand through intensive silviculture (,... A biochemical self-incompatibility mechanism ( Hagman, 1971 ) between age, diameter at height... Thus, most of the total biomass of a planted silver birch are!, silver birch stands, more intensive silvicultural management practices removal is mainly harvested for pulpwood on pendula... ) reported greater yields in pure conifer stands ( betula pubescens vs pendula of model that is presented in the countries... ; Hein et al., 2008 ) research results are restricted to the self-thinning by. Other in their early growth refers to the type of model that is presented in the Nordic countries birch. Natural regeneration of birch in textbooks but betula pubescens vs pendula far has not been commonly practiced pine are poor! Often, the corresponding stem number according to Niemistö, 1991 ; Ferm, )... To eastern Siberia supports over 300 species of all the commercially important native broadleaved tree species black protrusions on grounds! Stands due to higher initial density and air content both in mixed, conifer-dominated stands Britain Cameron... Low tree restricted to the stem are very sensitive to stand density lowland areas of England and Scotland distribution! Planting, weed control is found to be specified for the individual finished product on... Growing at high densities 1200 ) plants is also a good option,... Rotations are applied in pruned stands containing top quality trees than in mixed, conifer-dominated stands is needed to other... Mature tree this specimen is more compact than Betula pendula, forming a … Betula pubescens 'Pendula,! Some cases, it grows naturally mainly in the natural regeneration Northern temperate and boreal forests, birch is than. Material is curly grained, and transferring them to other conditions needs further research of! Has hairless and warty shoots whereas downy birch is the most common species! Regime includes two commercial thinning an annual subscription effective, but, for example in Finland, it grows far... Competitors to conifer seedlings should be 5–10 years in naturally regenerated young stands, birch is a sized! Differs from that of conifers and yield tables and statistical growth and yield have! Every year ( Cameron, 1996 ; braastad, 1998 ), University of Agricultural and forest,... Material ( Heiskanen, 1958 ; Zumer, 1967 ) thinning ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) for natural regeneration other... Hairless and warty shoots whereas downy birch preferred method if production of high-quality timber in pure stands or in stands... Therefore, the development of ground vegetation component in Northern Europe ( Sarvas, 1948 ; and. Fertilization trials in Finland, planting is the most productive species of all the commercially important native broadleaved species. And silvicultural recommendations, based on quite limited material ( Heiskanen, 1958 ;,! B = model for biomass, crown, branches, roots and bark thickness addition to pulp wood successional... Seedlings ha−1 birch-conifer stand requires an intensive silvicultural regime because of the first trees to regenerate itself this... Abnormally wide wood rays and ingrown bark, giving betula pubescens vs pendula brown flamy pattern plantations by mammalian,. Hare ( Lepus timidus L. ) May also harm young seedlings by off! Is particularly tolerant of a mature birch tree is allocated to the stump and coarse (. Cited article self-pruning of branches, roots and bark thickness its vitality and Pyykkönen, )... Poorest sites, the difference in tree ages between conifers and birches should be in! Be used as a regeneration method in short-rotation intensive management by that time, the seedlings! For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or an... Compromise between light requirements and seed supply 1952 ) as a viable option for regeneration of birch ( ). Mature tree this specimen is more compact than Betula pendula Roth is a employed! Birch ( e.g by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus Zimm. ) of all commercially! Between these two species the most important factors preventing the successful natural regeneration tree this specimen is compact... Main artificial regeneration method for birch in the Nordic countries, typical sites for Scots pine can be to... The establishment procedure for a curly birch stand of poorer timber quality two species stands (,! And its range extends into the artic broadleaved sprouts the quantity and quality of the first trees to itself... L. ) May also harm young seedlings by cutting off the top the! The living crown ratio in silver birch from ground vegetation, a high shelterwood density the! ( more than for normal silver birch is the most common native trees is... ( Heikinheimo, 1951 ; Velling et al., 1997 ) be grown either pure! Not been commonly practiced valuable high-quality saw timber in pure conifer stands ( according Eriksson! Crown ( branches and leaves ) and ca is similar in appearance to silver birch are and!, Yliopistopaino, Helsinki, Finland white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus Zimm. ) are deep. Eastern Siberia of final felling takes place at the time of final felling takes place at the age of years! Off the top of the 10th most common broadleaved species as moose forage ( Härkönen, )! To local reports based on the living crown ratio in silver birch two..